Functional Groups Guide – Organic Chemistry

Complete Guide to Recognizing, Drawing, and Naming Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry A functional group is a specific group of atoms that helps determine the chemistry and reactivity of the overall molecule. When classifying functional groups, we look at both the specific atoms present, as well as the manner in which they are connected to […]

Lewis Structure for Radicals

This video shows you a quick, time-saving checklist for radicals in Lewis structures! It ensures you don’t miss anything when deciding WHICH atom most likely has the radical. You’ll also see it in action as it is applied to several examples. (Watch on YouTube: Lewis Structures Radicals. Click cc on bottom right for video transcription.) Links & Resources Mentioned […]

Cyclohexane Ring Flip and Boat Conformation

Cyclohexanes are most stable in the chair conformation. This requires a ring flip to interconvert between the 2 chair conformations, with some funky (boat) intermediates. This video walks you through the ring flip and boat conformations both with a model kit as well as how to draw the ring flip and boat on paper. (Watch […]

What To Expect in Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is one of the most difficult sciences you’ll take in undergrad. Many students fail and have to take it again. You’ve heard the rumors. Perhaps you don’t believe them, or perhaps you’re terrified. But what can you actually do about them? The first step to conquering an unknown beast is understanding it. By […]

Cyclohexane Chair to Double Newman Quiz Challenge Question

This video walks you through the Chair Conformations Practice Quiz bonus question B – Converting a cyclohexane chair conformation to double Newman Projections. Practice is ESSENTIAL to mastering Organic Chemistry. You have to be able to apply the skills you are learning. First, complete the Cyclohexane Chair Conformations Practice Quiz, and then watch this video where I go over the Challenge Question […]

Carbocation Stability and Ranking

Carbocations arise so frequently in Organic Chemistry that recognizing them must become second nature. After reading this tutorial, you should be able to eyeball a molecule and determine where a carbocation is likely to form as well as its potential stability. This will help you master carbocation intermediate reactions down the line including Markovnikov alkene addition […]

Cyclohexane Chair Conformations Axial and Equatorial Stability

“Why does cyclohexane have to be in a chair conformation? How do I know which carbon goes up or down?” Learn this and more in video 1 of the chair conformation series. Learn how to recognize a chair, what it represents (with a model kit and on paper) and the nature of axial and equatorial substituents. (Watch […]

Resonance Structures Organic Chemistry Tutorial Video

Orgo Basics Video Series: Video 6 Resonance structures are alternative Lewis structures for a molecule or an ion. To draw the resonance hybrid or structures, we are moving electrons between adjacent atoms.  Overwhelmed? In the video below, you will see an explanation and illustration of resonance structures and resonance hybrids step-by-step. This will help you visualize […]

Major and Minor Resonance Contributing Structures

Orgo Basics Video Series: Video 7 You know now how to draw the resonance structures. But which one is the most accurate resonance structure?  Which one is most representative of the molecule? In this video, I will explain what it means to be the most stable & least stable resonance structures and how to identify it […]

Cis Trans and E Z Geometric Isomers

 Your organic chemistry course will cover many different types of isomers. Isomers have the same molecular formula but something about them is different. Geometric isomers, a type of stereoisomer, differ in their geometry or shape. This happens when substituents are LOCKED in a specific relationship to each other. I say locked because, unlike conformational isomers in […]