Enolate Ion Formation for Alpha Carbonyl Reactions

Reactions at the alpha carbonyl position with enolate intermediates occur in many reactions! This includes but is not limited to: Alpha-Halogenation, Haloform & Idoform tests, Aldol, Claisen Condensation and more. Once you grasp enolate anion formation, it’s reactivity and stability, you’ll have the clarity you need to master the upcoming reactions. This video also covers common enolate pKa […]

Claisen Condensation Reaction and Mechanism

Claisen condensation is a fun reaction used to form a beta keto ester when reacting esters in a strong base. This video shows you the step by step reaction mechanism including why the reaction is reversible only till the final step. (Watch on YouTube: Claisen Condensation. Click cc on the bottom right for video transcript) […]

Intramolecular Aldol Condensation Reaction

Intramolecular Aldol condensations happen when a single molecule contains 2 reaction aldehyde/ketone groups. When the alpha carbon of one group attacks the other, the molecule attacks itself forming a ring structure. This video shows you how to identify the correct alpha carbon and carbonyl will complete the most stable ring as well as how to […]

Mixed Cross Aldol Reaction

A mixed or cross aldol reaction uses 2 different starting aldehydes or ketones for a potential mess of 4 different products. This video shows you how to quickly identify all 4 possible products as well as how to control reaction conditions to help limit the number of products formed. (Watch on YouTube: Cross Aldol Reaction. Click […]

Aldol Reaction Shortcut

Aldol reaction mechanisms are long and tedious! Once you’ve mastered the aldol addition/condensation mechanism you need a faster way to predict products. You also need to be able to identify starting molecules from a given product. This video shows you my 1-2-3 trick for quickly identifying aldol condensation products as well as using the products […]

Aldol Addition and Condensation Reaction Mechanism

Aldol reactions are useful in organic chemistry synthesis for creating new carbon to carbon bonds. This reaction can occur as an aldol addition reaction at lower temperatures forming a beta-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone, or as an aldol condensation reaction at higher temperatures forming an alpha-beta unsaturated product. This video walks you through the addition and […]

Haloform Reaction and Iodoform Test

The Haloform Reaction is a very specific type of alpha halogenation reaction. This reaction takes place at the methyl ketone turning the methyl into a good haloform leaving group. This can include chloroform and bromoform, and of course the Iodoform solid precipitate used in lab to test for the presence of a methyl ketone. The […]

Alpha Halogenation Reaction of Ketones and Aldehydes

Carbonyl groups provide a great starting point for synthesis reactions due to the reactivity at the alpha carbon position. Alpha halogenation is a great reaction to introduce leaving groups at the alpha position for further substitution or elimination reactions. Alpha halogenation can take place under acidic or basic conditions. The video below walks you through […]

Enolate Formation and Alpha Hydrogen pKa Table

Alpha Hydrogen acidity comes from the ability to resonate negative conjugate electrons onto the nearby carbonyl group. Your professor may ask you to memorize pKa values. I recommend UNDERSTANDING this chart as explained in the enolate video so that you’re not left fumbling for numbers. <– Back to the Enolate Reactions Video Tutorial Series Homepage