A radical, or free radical, refers to an atom or molecule with a single unpaired electron. This concept differs from 99% of organic chemistry which deals with the movements and reactions of electron pairs. Before we dive into free radical reactions, let’s take a step back to understand the nature and chemistry of these mysterious […]
When it comes to MCAT prep, there are many resources available. Too many resources, in fact. There’s the recommended AAMC materials and many third party ones as well. Today, I want to discuss the AAMC resources specifically, including what they are, why you should use them, when to use them, and when to ABSOLUTELY AVOID […]
Ortho, Meta and Para refer to the 1-2, 1-3, and 1-4 relationships between benzene substituents. In Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution reactions, O/M/P directing effects help us figure out where to place the incoming electrophile. Electron Donating Groups activate the ring for ortho and para addition. Electron Withdrawing Groups deactivate the ring for meta addition. Halogens are the one exception.
Keto Enol Tautomerization or KET, is an organic chemistry reaction in which ketone and enol molecules can isomerize or interconvert, typically in an acid or base catalyzed reaction.
Alkyne reactions typically mark the turning point between basic organic chemistry and this just got real! This video provides an introduction to what you can expect when studying alkyne reactions. From their basic chemistry and properties to the various alkyne reactions. (Watch on YouTube: Alkyne Intro. Click CC for Transcription.) –> Watch Next Video: Alkyne Reduction – Hydrogenation […]
Acid catalyzed hydration of alkenes involves replacing the pi bond on an alkene with a water molecule. This is done by adding an alcohol to the more substituted carbon atom, and hydrogen to the less substituted carbon atom. This reaction follows Markovnikov’s rule and may undergo a carbocation rearrangement. If it is chiral, the product […]
When it comes to organic chemistry reactions, many students focus on learning the EXACT steps by memorizing the SPECIFIC molecules presented in their books and lecture slides. Then, when something looks even slightly different on the exam, they panic! One such scenario: replacing water with alcohol in a reaction sequence – either as the attacking molecule or […]
Organic chemistry is all about mechanisms. And while the sheer volume may feel overwhelming, they all boil down to a few simple types of mechanism steps. In Part 1 and Part 2 we looked at the four common mechanism types: Nucleophilic attack, Loss of Leaving Group, Proton transfer and Rearrangements. In this video we’ll look at TWO […]
Proton transfer and rearrangements are 2 more common mechanism patterns you will face in organic chemistry. This is in addition to Nucleophilic attack and Loss of Leaving Group discussed in Mechanism Video Part 1. You’ll see multiple proton transfer examples in action including turning a bad leaving group into a good leaving group! Rearrangement mechanism are broken down for […]